Spanish flag icon

Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification

Discovering how tetrapods splashed out!

Foreshore at Burnmouth

© Rob Clack

The TW:eed Project is a scientific research project studying fossils and environments from the Early Carboniferous Tournaisian Stage, roughly 350 million years ago. Teams of experts from the Universities of Cambridge, Leicester and Southampton, the British Geological Survey and National Museums of Scotland are collaborating to study some spectacular newly-discovered fossils which will fill in a significant gap (Romer's Gap) in our understanding of how tetrapods moved from water onto land, the other animals and plants that existed at that time, and the environment in which these changes took place.

The project consists of teams working on the palaeontology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, palynology and performing stable isotope analysis, so that we can discover not only how tetrapods became terrestrial, but also what the environment, plants and other animals were like and how they changed in parallel with the tetrapods.

We are also working with experts in a number of other universities and institutions, both in the UK and abroad. Please see the Project Partners and Canadian Partners pages.

Our project blog is at and is maintained by Dr Carys Bennett at the University of Leicester.

Visit the Project Facebook page.

What's New?
  • Congratulations to Dr Sam Giles at the University of Oxford on being awarded one of this year's L'Oréal-Unesco Women in Science Fellowships! Fantastic news!
  • Team members from several institutes have just published a paper in the journal Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology about the terrestrial landscapes of south-east Scotland during the Tournaisian. Read a summary of the paper.
  • Team members from Edinburgh have recently excavated the remains of a large rhizodont fish. Read a report on their work.
  • Team members from Cambridge and Edinburgh attended the European Association of Vertebrate Palæontologists meeting in Haarlem, Netherlands. Read a report about that.
  • Our exhibition at the NMS has closed, but will now travel for three months at a time to Biggar, Montrose and Stornaway. We have also applied to exhibit at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition next July.